The Dead Sea is found at the border between Jordan and the occupied territories situated at 1300 ft. (400 m) below sea level- the lowest point on earth. It is 50 km long and with a maximum width of 17 km. It was geologically formed three million years ago when a small fracture happened in the Jordan rift valley. Seawater rushed in and collected in this fracture. The dry weather and high rate of evaporation gradually increased the concentration of minerals to the water. Salt, chalk and gypsum precipitated along the length of this fracture resulting in a lake-like creation. This lake sometimes ended its relationship with the sea to become an Inland Lake. Nowadays, it continues to be fed by the Jordan River and numerous Mineral Springs that dispense into it from the adjoining mountains. This lake has been named the Dead Sea, called so because no form of life has been able to exist in its extremely salty water.
The Dead Sea is very much alive with more than 21 health-giving minerals found in its water and mud. It has the highest salt content of all the seas in the world and contains about 45 billion metric tons of dissolved minerals. The beneficial effects of the Dead Sea’s raw materials on the skin and their unique therapeutic and beautifying powers have been recognized since ancient times. Cleopatra, considered to be the most attractive woman in the world, who was presented with Dead Sea salts by King Solomon upon her visit to the holy land, went to great lengths to obtain exclusive rights over the Dead Sea area by urging Marc Antony to conquer the Dead Sea region in his Judean campaign. At her command, pharmaceutical and cosmetic factories were built near the Dead Sea.